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1) Test decodes dolphins’ math skills:
Dolphins could teach humans a thing or two about finding Nemo. The aquatic mammals may pinpoint prey hidden in bubbles by using mental math.
|By studying the clicks of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins, researchers have figured out a way to create sonar that sees through bubbles|
By adjusting the volume of sonar clicks, then processing the incoming echoes, dolphins might have solved a problem that still stymies man-made sonar: how to peer through frothy water. Using clicks that mimic an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, scientists devised a system that weeds out sound clutter from underwater bubbles.
“It’s really ingenious, actually,” says oceanographer Grant Deane of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, Calif. “I think it’s very clever work, and there are a number of significant applications for it.”
Using something like a fireman’s hose, researchers shot bubbles into a huge water tank set underground. The bubbles cloaked a submerged target: a steel ball slightly smaller than a baseball. Then, the researchers sent out short bursts of sound — the faux dolphin clicks — underwater, collected the echoes, and processed the data mathematically to figure out the steel ball’s location.
|Dolphins often send out a spray of bubbles to herd their lunch (in this case, sardines). Unlike man-made sonar, dolphins can see through the frothy clouds using echolocation.|
It worked “brilliantly,” says physicist and engineer Timothy Leighton who led the study, published online July 12 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society A.
The findings could improve man-made sonar, allowing mine-hunting submarines to see more clearly in murky shallow waters.
Normally, using sonar to locate targets in bubbly water is a bit like driving a car at night in thick fog, says Leighton, of the University of Southampton in England. Switching on the headlights doesn’t improve the driver’s vision; fog droplets just scatter the light.
Similarly, bubbles scatter sound. But the sound they reflect gets a sonic boost: Bubbles kick back sonar signals perhaps a million times more powerfully than equally sized steel balls in water, Leighton says. This peppy bounce back makes it tricky for sonar to look through foamy waters.
But scientists have observed dolphins blowing bubble nets — dense clouds of tiny bubbles — while hunting schools of fish.
“It seemed strange,” says Leighton. “Either dolphins are blinding their best sensory apparatus, or they’re doing something we can’t.” Compared to the best sonar technology, a dolphin’s hardware is less powerful. But dolphins still outperform their man-made counterparts.
2) Inflation on Trial:
Ask any astronomer what inflation is, and you’ll hear about the moment when the universe’s primordial fireball expanded like a balloon on steroids, smoothing and flattening its initial wrinkles before it grew into the cosmos seen today.Now, some physicists are trying to let a little air out of that scenario.
Generally regarded as one of the most successful theories about the early universe, inflationary cosmology is not exactly under attack. But a few scientists are questioning whether it deserves its reputation as completely untouchable. Inflation may be the best-developed explanation for many features seen in the modern universe, these researchers say, but it still has problems.
“The picture doesn’t really hold together,” says Paul Steinhardt, a theoretical physicist at Princeton University. “Either inflation needs a major overhaul or we have to think about some other approach to cosmology.”
In a paper posted online at arXiv.org in April, physicist Robert Brandenberger of McGill University in Montreal argues that scientists should continue exploring alternatives to inflation rather than just taking for granted that it’s right.
|In the most well-accepted picture of the early universe, a period of rapid expansion called inflation follows the Big Bang. Inflation explains many cosmic features visible to astronomers today|
One such alternative, developed over the last decade, holds that the universe may not have begun with a single Big Bang, but rather experiences cycle after cycle of contraction and expansion. Another approach posits a world with a collection of tiny vibrating strings whose movements generate cosmic features currently explained by inflation.
Within the next few years, telescopes may collect enough data to distinguish among the options. Only then, say the inflation agnostics, will the picture hold together or fall apart.
“We really don’t know what happened in the early universe,” says Jean-Luc Lehners, a cosmologist at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Potsdam, Germany. “We know what the result was, but we don’t know how the universe got there.”
Those on both sides of the issue are quick to point out that inflation could turn out to be right. Inflation, says Andrei Linde of Stanford University, is “the only presently existing internally consistent theory of the early universe.” Linde developed some of the first versions of inflation, and thinks those who question it are either intellectually off-course or led astray by journalists looking for a story. “It is quite possible that eventually this theory will be generalized and extended,” he says. “But so far all attempts to replace it by something better failed.”
|A recent proposal blends an inflationary picture of the early universe with a cyclic scenario, creating a slew of universes with different histories. Some begin with inflation (yellow) and then undergo cycles of expansion and contraction (red and blue).|
A recent proposal blends an inflationary picture of the early universe with a cyclic scenario, creating a slew of universes with different histories. Some begin with inflation (yellow) and then undergo cycles of expansion and contraction (red and blue).
3) Catching a Cancer:
Mentors at the Rockefeller Institute had warned Peyton Rous not to waste his career fooling with “the cancer question.” Then he got the bright idea that tumors might be contagious. Rous extracted part of a sarcoma from a hen, strained out the cells and injected the remnants into another bird. The second hen also developed cancer. Something hidden inside the tumor must be causing the cancer. His culprit: a virus.
|The human papillomavirus (pink and white in this photoillustration) is a known cause of cervical and other cancers. New techniques have energized the search for viruses that can turn good cells malignant|
Rous’ finding was met with such resounding disbelief that he soon abandoned the entire line of research. He returned to it 20 years later, still on the unpopular side of scientific opinion. More years passed, until Rous was finally vindicated with a Nobel Prize “for his discovery of tumor-inducing viruses” — 56 years after he began his work, in 1910.
|Peyton Rous won a Nobel Prize in 1966 for discovering that a cancer in a chicken could be transmitted via a virus|
Viruses exist at the border between living and nonliving, working their way into tissues and piggybacking on a cell’s machinery to make copies of themselves. In the century since Rous’ chicken studies, researchers have uncovered about half a dozen viruses that, while going about their sole mission of replicating, happen to trigger cancer. Some cancer viruses bear familiar names like HPV, known to cause cervical cancer, and hepatitis B and C, which lead to tumors in the liver. Others aren’t so famous, including Epstein-Barr virus as a cause of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and two viruses known to cause tumors in people with severely repressed immune systems. Yet scores of researchers are intrigued by the possibility of cancer viruses that haven’t yet been discovered.
As of now, the official figure for the percentage of human cancers caused by viruses is around 20 percent — but most experts concede that number is largely an educated guess, accounting for known viruses behaving in predictable ways. “Thirty years ago, that number would have been 5 percent,” says Robert Garry, a virologist at Tulane University School of Medicine in New Orleans. “It’s a moving target. How high is it going to go? We don’t know.”
Soon, they may. Until recently, virus hunting involved painstaking detective work. But improvements in molecular technologies have made it easier to search for and study the behavior of snippets of nonhuman genes woven around otherwise normal threads of genetic material. In just the last eight years, a human pathogen discovery project housed at Washington University in St. Louis has found 40 new viruses. “We are huge walking bags of viruses,” says Eain Murphy, a virologist at the Cleveland Clinic. “There are so many we don’t even know what they do.”
Not all will have a cancer connection. Yet considering the scope of cancer triggers that remain undiscovered — even in breast cancer, most women have no known risk factors aside from their age and sex — many researchers expect previously unknown viruses will be to blame for some cancers, or at least make otherwise sluggish tumors more aggressive.
Medical science has already compiled a long list of little-noticed viruses suspected of contributing to common malignancies, including cancers of the colon, skin, lungs, breast and brain. Recently, some types of skin cancer, and possibly other malignancies, have been linked to a powerful group of viruses called polyomaviruses, which are little more than free-range cancer genes.
New investigations also stand to finally settle old controversies — such as whether a virus can cause breast cancer — and ignite fresh ones. Already, some scientists are speculating whether lung cancer in nonsmokers may have some viral origin, either through human viruses or infections from animals. “The next decade promises to be an exciting era for the tumor virology field,” researchers wrote last year in Cancer Letters.
Yet with better virus detection also comes a concern. If people are indeed walking bags of viruses, then every slice of tissue could hold countless false leads. As a case in point, researchers almost universally mention XMRV, a virus discovered in 2006 as a possible cause of prostate cancer. Six years and dozens of studies later, the general conclusion is that XMRV wasn’t inciting human tumor cells, but was instead a case of laboratory contamination with a rodent virus.
|Monkey Man From Nagaland|
Monkey Man on this picture was found in the Jungle of Nagaland caught in animal Trap. Some said it may be the missing link between Monkey and Human. It was known through the police that this animal was found dead in the animal Trap which was laid by the middle age hunter in the Peren district of Nagaland India . The hunter then sold this animal to a unknown man at Rupees ten thousand (Rs 10,000/-). After the Circulation of the Picture taken in Mobile Phone many outsiders came to that village for the animal and hunter. Both the Hunter and the Animal are found missing Now
|3D Picture of Subhaditya Channel Room (3rd News Week)|
Political and Other News:
1) Militant attacks kill 15 in Pakistan
|A bomb exploded at a compound in northwest Pakistan on Saturday|
A bomb exploded at a compound in northwest Pakistan on Saturday, killing nine people and wounding 20, local government and intelligence officials said.
The bombing in the compound, used by a local militia and containing residential units and an office, occurred near the village of Spin Tal in the Orakzai tribal region. The Pakistan military has been conducting operations against militant groups in the area for months.
"We are not sure if a suicide bomber hit the compound or if some militants were assembling a bomb and it accidentally went off," a local government official said, requesting anonymity.
The wounded were evacuated to a hospital in neighboring Hangu district. A hospital official told Reuters that several of the wounded were in critical condition.
Several militant groups are active in Pakistan's northwestern semi-autonomous tribal regions, near the border with Afghanistan, including the Pakistan Taliban, responsible for many of the bombings across the country in recent years.
In southwestern Baluchistan province, militants attacked a coast guard post, killing six personnel, local officials said.
The attackers arrived aboard pick-up trucks and motorcycles and fired rocket-propelled grenades and assault rifles at the post near the Arabian Sea coastal town of Peshikan in Gwadar district.
Much of the violence in Baluchistan, Pakistan's biggest but poorest province, has been blamed on ethnic Baluch separatists, who are fighting a protracted insurgency, demanding more autonomy and control over natural resources.
Islamist militants loyal to al Qaeda and the Taliban are also active in the province, which borders Iran and Afghanistan.
2) Colorado 'Dark Knight Rises' Shooting Witnesses
|Gunman At Batman Movie Premiere|
Eyewitnesses and escapees of the theater shooting at a midnight screening of The Dark Knight Rises in Aurora, Colo., describe mass confusion and then terror and panicked fleeing.
The town's police chief, Dan Oates, said that witnesses "tell us [the shooter, allegedy 24-year-old James Holmes] released some sort of canister. They heard a hissing sound and some gas emerged and the gunman opened fire."
"I knew there was an issue -- well it started, there were explosions behind, but I thought it was just a normal practical joke, fireworks or something, but then I see people starting to leave the theater, smoke behind me," an eyewitness told the Associated Press, "For the first few seconds nobody was panicking, but then everyone started moving toward the exits and we were being herded to the upper area of the theater."
Donovan Tate, a theatergoer who escaped with his girlfriend, told the local CBS affiliate, "There was this one guy on all fours crawling. There was this girl spitting up blood. There were bullet holes in some people’s backs, in some people’s arms. There was one guy who was just stripped down to his boxers. It looked like he had been shot in the back or something."
Benjamin Fernandez told CBS, "I was with my younger sister and a friend, Mike, and Sheala. We decided there's something not right going on. And we got up and as soon as we walked out the door, we saw several police officers with just different guns, like shotguns. I don't even know, I've never seen cops holding guns like that.
"We walked to the left, and we just saw pretty much everything wasn't even under control at that point," Fernandez continued. "There was just people, just there was -- I saw a younger girl laying there, like with bullet wounds just bleeding, and the look in her eyes was like -- I don't know. I've had family members who have been close to death, I've been there at the hospital, and she just had that same look. It was scary."
"At first, I didn't think it was anything serious, I thought it was a joke or part of the show... he came in, he was five feet away from me, he came in on my right side, I was in the second row in the very front. He came in and he threw in the gas can," Jennifer Seeger, another theatergoer, told NBC News. "And then I knew it was real. And then he shot the ceiling, and right after he shot the ceiling, he pointed the gun right at me, and at that point, I dove into the aisle, and I got lucky because he didn't shoot me.
"But then he started to shoot people behind me, and bullets started falling on my head, it was like burning my head because it was so fresh," Seeger continued. "I could smell gunpowder. And at that point he walked up the stairs, and all you could hear is mass chaos."
Speaking to ABC affiliate KMGH, Christ Jones said, "We were maybe 20 or 30 minutes into the movie and all you hear, first you smell smoke, everybody thought it was fireworks or something like that, and then you just see people dropping and the gunshots are constant. I heard at least 20 to 30 rounds within that minute or two."
"I hit the floor and hid behind the seats in front of me, pulling my wife down to hide with me," Adam Witt, speaking to CNN, said. "It was the longest minute of my life. The gunshots just kept coming. I knew it could be over any second. I knew my wife could be gone any second. It was absolutely surreal. I felt something hit my left arm, and my first thought was, 'At least it's just my arm.'"
One of the 12 victims killed is Jessica Ghawi, an aspiring sportscaster who had just recently moved from San Antonio to Colorado. Already, the San Antonio media and friends have started to remember her with news stories and tweets.
3) Ramdev meets Balkrishna in jail
|Yoga guru Ramdev on Saturday met his aide Balkrishna|
Yoga guru Ramdev on Saturday met his aide Balkrishna, who was arrested by the Central Bureau of Investigation in a fake document case, in a jail in Dehradun, police sources said.
Ramdev, who was staging a sit-in in front of the CBI office in Dehradun in protest against Balkrishna's arrest, left for Suddhowala jail soon after his aide was remanded to judicial custody by a court.
Earlier, a CBI court rejected the bail Balkrishna's application and remanded him in nine-day judicial custody in a fake document case.
Balkrishna was arrested on Friday after the court issued non bailable warrants against him after he failed to appear before it. The CBI had on July 10 filed a chargesheet in a special court here against Balkrishna in the case.
Bollywood personalities including Rajesh Khanna's family members today attended a prayer meeting held in memory of the first superstar of Hindi cinema at a suburban five-star hotel here.
|3D Picture of Rajesh Khanna created by me (Manash Kundu)|
Besides the actor's kin, including his estranged wife Dimple Kapadia, two daughters Twinkle and Rinke, son-in-law Akshaye Kumar and first grandson Aarav, a string of celebrities also turned up at the function held at Taj Lands End in suburban Bandra.
Dressed in white, Bollywood's who's who including Amitabh Bachchan with wife Jaya, Aamir Khan, Hrithik Roshan with father Rakesh Roshan, Randhir Kapoor, Rajiv Kapoor, Rishi Kapoor with wife Neetu Singh, prayed for the departed soul.
The 69-year-old actor passed away at his residence on July 18.
Actor Shashi Kapoor also attended the meet on a wheelchair and was seen being accompanied by Ranbir Kapoor.
Also spotted were director Ashutosh Gowarikar, actors Sonakshi Sinha, Deepika Padukone, Tabu among others, while Amar Singh, Jayaprada and a few others politicians too turned up.
A huge black-and-white photograph of the actor, decorated with white flowers, was seen at the entrance of the hall at the venue.
5) Russia's Putin signs law on WTO accession
|President Vladimir Putin has signed Russia's accession to the World Trade Organisation|
President Vladimir Putin has signed Russia's accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) into law, completing an 18-year campaign to join the trade rules club, the Kremlin press office said on Saturday.
Russia's upper house of parliament ratified the country's WTO entry earlier this month. The $1.9 trillion Russian economy, the world's ninth largest, will become the WTO's 156th member 30 days after ratification.
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1) Mayor hopes London torch tour to lift Olympic mood
|Crowds of thousands cheered the Olympic torch relay through London on Saturday|
Crowds of thousands cheered the Olympic torch relay through London on Saturday on the final leg of its tour around Britain, generating excitement that organizers hope will dispel lingering fears about the event's organization and security.
The relay, which began in London's historic maritime district of Greenwich, drew a lively crowd as it passed by the myriad curry houses of east London's Brick Lane, though the ensuing traffic gridlock underlined the challenges of hosting the Games in one of the world's busiest cities.
Weeks of rain and logistical problems have prompted a slew of negative headlines in Britain's famously critical press ahead of the July 27 to August 12 Games, with organizers struggling to recruit enough private security guards, forcing them to look to the army for help. Transport and border staff are also expected to strike soon, causing further headaches.
Still, that failed to dampen the crowd's enthusiasm.
"It might be inconvenient for two weeks, but it's such an advertisement for Britain, for London. We're so excited," said Rebecca Hurley, 46, who was with her husband and two daughters.
Others nearby, however, were far from thrilled, highlighting the cynicism with which some in Britain see the Games.
"I'm really not interested in sport. It's hyped-up and annoying - two weeks of hell," said barwoman Sophie Turner, 20.
Her friend said she was worried about bomb attacks.
More British army personnel will be drafted in to secure the games than are currently serving in Afghanistan, partly to make up for the shortfall of security guards.
The Olympic torch arrived in London on Friday after touring scores of British cities, towns and villages, delivered by a Royal Marine Commando who abseiled from a helicopter into the Tower of London, one of the capital's main tourist attractions.
In the coming days, the torch will be carried around London's religious, political and royal landmarks, culminating in the lighting of the Olympic cauldron in east London.
"As it sprints through the city, I know that its radiance will dispel any last remaining clouds of dampness and anxiety ... and it will spread the crackling bush fire of Olympic enthusiasm throughout the city," London Mayor Boris Johnson told reporters, referring to the torch.
2) Indian woman boxer Mary Kom qualifies for London Olympics
|Five-time world champion M. C. Mary Kom (51kg)|
Five-time world champion M. C. Mary Kom (51kg) on Friday added another feather to her already crowded cap by becoming the only Indian woman boxer to qualify for the London Olympics despite being on the sidelines after losing in the quarterfinals of the World Championships held in China.
The 29-year-old Manipuri, who would be returning without a medal from the mega-event for the first time since its inception in 2001, made the cut after her quarterfinal nemesis Nicola Adams of England defeated Russia's Elena Savelyeva 11-6 in the semifinals on Friday.
"Olympic slot confirmed finally! I am so happy," the mother-of-two said. "I saw the bout. I know the Russian was not very good but I am a bit sad as well because I won't have a medal around my neck this time," added the reigning Asian champion.
"Medal is very important for me. I am happy with the qualification but I am very upset not to get a medal."
Women's boxing will make its Olympic debut in London in three weight categories -- 51kg, 60kg and 75kg -- and the ongoing world championships are the first and the only qualifying event for the quadrennial extravaganza.
In Mary Kom's division, one slot had been taken by China's Asian Games gold-medallist Ren Cancan, who is in final now.
The other slot was to be decided between Mary Kom and North Korea's Hye Kim. While Mary Kom had lost to world number two Adams, Kim had gone down to Savelyeva in the quarterfinals.
The winner of the Savelyeva-Adams bout was to decide the second slot for Asia and luckily for the Indian, the result went her way.
3) Kohli Stars Again As India Win
|Match Winner Kohli (106 runs) against Sri Lanka|
India 314-6 (Kohli 106) beat
Sri Lanka 293-9 (Sangakkara 133) by 21 runs
First One-Day International, Hambantota
A late rally from Kumar Sangakkara and Thisara Perera wasn’t enough to help Sri Lanka overhaul India’s impressive total of 314 for six in the first One-Day International in Hambantota. That total was built around a second-wicket partnership of 173 between Virender Sehwag and Virat Kohli.
The pair came together following the loss of Gautam Gambhir in the third over and scored at almost a run a ball as they milked the home side’s attack. Sehwag eventually fell four short of what would have been his 16th ODI century as he was run-out at the non-striker’s end. Kohli had no such problems and brought up his 12th century from 106 balls. During the course of the innings, he had equalled Sachin Tendulkar’s Indian record of five consecutive scores of 50 or more and he now had his third straight ton against Sri Lanka to boot.
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Movie Release This week:
The epic conclusion to filmmaker Christopher Nolan's Batman trilogy. After eight years of struggling with his new status as a wanted vigilante, Batman must contend with newcomers Catwoman and the brutal and villainous Bane.
2)Hara-Kiri: Death of a Samurai (2012) Click Here to see the trailer
From visionary auteur Takashi Miike (13 ASSASSINS) comes the story of a mysterious samurai who arrives at the doorstep of his feudal lord, requesting an honorable death by ritual suicide in his courtyard. The lord threatens him with the brutal tale of Motome, a desperate young ronin who made a similar request with ulterior motives, only to meet a grisly end. Undaunted, the samurai begins to tell a story of his own, with an ending no one could see coming. With stunning cinematography and gripping performances, HARA-KIRI: DEATH OF A SAMURAI is a thrilling exploration of revenge, honor, and individuality in the face of oppressive power
3) TheRunway (2012) Click here to see the trailer
In this charming comedy, Oscar-nominee Demián Bichir (A BETTER LIFE, “Weeds”) stars as Ernesto, a Colombian pilot whose plane has crashed in a small Irish village. Not able to speak a word of English, a precocious 9-year old boy named Paco, the only one in his town who knows Spanish, becomes his translator. Rewriting Ernesto’s mysterious and questionable past, Paco turns him into a hero and a celebrity, motivating the entire town to rally behind Ernesto to help rebuild his plane. When a seedy Colombian detective arrives and threatens to reveal a dark secret about Ernesto, the town begins to question who they can trust. Inspired by true events, The Runaway tells the story of a boy needing a father, a man wanting a family, and a town willing to do anything for a hero
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