|3D Picture of Science News This Week|
Science News This Week:
1) Genome of Malaria-Causing Parasite Sequenced: Even When On Different Continents, Organism Features Same Mutations:
Scientists at Case Western Reserve University and the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute have discovered that the parasite that causes the most common form of malaria share the same genetic variations -- even when the organisms are separated across continents.
The discovery raises concerns that mutations to resist existing medications could spread worldwide, making global eradication efforts even more difficult.
The researchers, including Cleveland-based David Serre and Peter Zimmerman, Didier Menard (Institut Pasteur-Cambodia) and Arsene Ratsimbasoa (Madagascar National Malaria Control Program) are the first to sequence the genome of the parasite Plasmodium vivax, taken from patients at coverage needed to verify genome-wide DNA sequence variation. The genome contains all of the organism's inheritable information.
The ability to sequence is crucial to understanding the hard-to-study parasite, which annually causes up to 250 million cases of malaria and places an economic burden, mostly on the poor, in excess of $1.4 billion by some estimates.
The researchers report their findings in the Sept. 6 issue of the online journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases.
The scientists at first were surprised to find little genetic variation specific to different locations among the samples, which came from humans in Madagascar and Cambodia and South America.
How can parasites, transmitted by mosquitoes, share genome-wide variations on three continents?
"The parasite's life cycle enables P. vivax to be a microbial globe-trotter," said Peter Zimmerman, professor of international health, genetics and biology in the Center for Global Health and Diseases at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.
In parts of the world where Plasmodium vivax malaria is endemic, the primary infection gets into the red blood cells and makes people sick, he explained. When they feel better, people resume their normal activities and travel.
But a portion of the infectious form can remain in their liver, where it may lay dormant for months or a year, then re-emerges into the blood when that person is in a different place.
"In that new place, local mosquitoes bite, become infected, and start spreading the P. vivax parasite and its genome in locations that can be a long distance away from where the original human infection occurred," Zimmerman, a senior author of the new study, said.
This ability for worldwide travel raises concerns among the researchers. There is no vaccine and there is only one drug that kills the parasite in the liver.
"If drug resistance arises, with modern travel, how long would it be before the resistance is spread over the world?" Zimmerman said. "This data suggests it could quickly become a big problem."
Learning how Plasmodium vivax lives and causes malaria has been challenging because the parasite dies when removed from its host. With improvements in sequencing techniques and reductions in costs, David Serre, Assistant Professor, at the Genomic Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, and Zimmerman decided to try to see if the parasite's genome could be sequenced and what it might tell.
"Our work provides the first report on genome-wide variation of this malaria parasite and provides the malaria research community with more than 80,000 genetic markers that can now be used for trait mapping or population monitoring," Serre said. "This is a critical step to understand the biology of this parasite that cannot be studied in the laboratory yet affects millions of people each year."
Serre and Ernest R. Chan, a postdoctoral research fellow at the Genomic Medicine Institute, sequenced the genomes of parasites in blood samples taken from two P. vivax malaria patients in Madagascar and three in Cambodia, after first removing the white blood cells. For comparison, they sequenced P. vivax from a monkey that had been infected with a human strain of the parasite found in South America. The results showed the six samples extensively shared alternative forms of the same gene, called alleles.
Sequencing parasite strains straight from humans is a big step forward, Serre said. Most researchers have been studying human strains of P. vivax propagated through monkeys. This method is not as reliable as using human samples, because it introduces variability, and is limited to only about a dozen strains that have been adapted to monkeys. Far more strains have been found in humans.
The 80,000 genetic markers identified can now be used to search for links to drug-resistant malaria, a growing problem in Southeast Asia; and to study possible new treatments for P. vivax malaria.
Zimmerman and Serre are seeking grants to expand their work, sequencing more samples from more locations.
The researchers will use the data to perform genetic evolution studies to learn where the parasite originated, how it spreads, and how different strains are geographically distributed.
The team will also study evolving P. vivax infection mechanisms. For example, in a classic example of natural selection, African persons do not develop P. vivax malaria, but the disease is prevalent in nearby Madagascar. Serre and Zimmerman believe specific mutations in Malagasy P. vivax strains make the parasite able to infect individuals previously thought to be resistant.
"These studies will help advance the understanding of P. vivax biology and how the parasite successfully evades malaria elimination efforts worldwide," Serre said.
"Completion of the P. vivax genome promises to provide new insights into the biology of vivax malaria and new leads for therapies and vaccines," said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which funded the study.
2) How Sea Otters Can Reduce CO2 in the Atmosphere: Appetite for Sea Urchins Allows Kelp to Thrive:
Can an abundance of sea otters help reverse a principal cause of global warming? A new study by two UC Santa Cruz researchers suggest that a thriving sea otter population that keeps sea urchins in check will in turn allow kelp forests to prosper. The spreading kelp can absorb as much as 12 times the amount of CO2 from the atmosphere than if it were subject to ravenous sea urchins, the study finds.
|How Sea Otters Can Reduce CO2 in the Atmosphere: Appetite for Sea Urchins Allows Kelp to Thrive|
The theory is outlined in a paper released online September 7, 2012 in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment by lead authors UC Santa Cruz professors Chris Wilmers and James Estes.
"It is significant because it shows that animals can have a big influence on the carbon cycle," said Wilmers, assistant professor of environmental studies.
Wilmers, Estes, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology, and their co-authors, combined 40 years of data on otters and kelp bloom from Vancouver Island to the western edge of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. They found that otters "undoubtedly have a strong influence" on the cycle of CO2 storage.
Comparing kelp density with otters and kelp density without otters, they found that "sea otters have a positive indirect effect on kelp biomass by preying on sea urchins, a kelp grazer." When otters are around, sea urchins hide in crevices and eat kelp scraps. With no otters around, sea urchins graze voraciously on living kelp.
Kelp is particularly efficient at sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has increased 40 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution, causing global temperatures to rise, the authors write.
Wilmers and Estes acknowledge that a spreading otter population won't solve the problem of higher CO2 in the atmosphere but argue that the restoration and protection of otters is an example how managing animal populations can affect ecosystems abilities to sequester carbon.
"Right now, all the climate change models and proposed methods of sequestering carbon ignore animals," Wilmers said. "But animals the world over, working in different ways to influence the carbon cycle, might actually have a large impact.
"If ecologists can get a better handle on what these impacts are, there might be opportunities for win-win conservation scenarios, whereby animal species are protected or enhanced, and carbon gets sequestered," he said.
Mitigating increased CO2 in the atmosphere is a pressing issue in global environmental conservation with many obstacles and no easy solutions, the authors write. They note that markets have been established in Europe and the United States to trade carbon credits and thus inject an economic incentive into either reducing CO2 output or increasing CO2 sequestration.
They estimate that the CO2 removed from the atmosphere via the otter-kelp link could be worth between $205 million and $408 million on the European Carbon Exchange. "An alluring idea," they write, would be to sell the carbon indirectly sequestered by the sea otter protected kelp forest "as a way to pay for their reintroduction and management or to compensate losses to shell fisheries from sea otter predation."
3) Deep-Sea Crabs Grab Grub Using UV Vision: Some Crabs On the Sea Floor Can See UV Light and Use the Ability to Select Healthy Food
Crabs living half-a-mile down in the ocean, beyond the reach of sunlight, have a sort of color vision combining sensitivity to blue and ultraviolet light. Their detection of shorter wavelengths may give the crabs a way to ensure they grab food, not poison.
|Deep-Sea Crabs Grab Grub Using UV Vision: Some Crabs On the Sea Floor Can See UV Light and Use the Ability to Select Healthy Food|
"Call it color-coding your food," said Duke biologist Sönke Johnsen. He explained that the animals might be using their ultraviolet and blue-light sensitivity to "sort out the likely toxic corals they're sitting on, which glow, or bioluminesce, blue-green and green, from the plankton they eat, which glow blue."
The discovery explains what some deep-sea animals use their eyes for and how their sensitivity to light shapes their interactions with their environment. "Sometimes these discoveries can also lead to novel and useful innovations years later," like an X-ray telescope which was based on lobster eyes, said Tamara Frank, a biologist at Nova Southeastern University. She and her collaborators report their findings online Sept. 6 in the Journal of Experimental Biology.
Frank, who led the study, has previously shown that certain deep-sea creatures can see ultraviolet wavelengths, despite living at lightless depths. Experiments to test deep-sea creatures' sensitivity to light have only been done on animals that live in the water column at these depths. The new study is one of the first to test how bottom-dwelling animals respond to light.
The scientists studied three ocean-bottom sites near the Bahamas. They took video and images of the regions, recording how crustaceans ate and the wavelengths of light, or color, at which neighboring animals glowed by bioluminescence. The scientists also captured and examined the eyes of eight crustaceans found at the sites and several other sites on earlier cruises.
To capture the crustaceans, the team used the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible. During the dive, crustaceans were gently suctioned into light-tight, temperature-insulated containers. They were brought to the surface, where Frank placed them in holders in her shipboard lab and attached a microelectrode to each of their eyes.
She then flashed different colors and intensities of light at the crustaceans and recorded their eye response with the electrode. From the tests, she discovered that all of the species were extremely sensitive to blue light and two of them were extremely sensitive to both blue and ultraviolet light. The two species sensitive to blue and UV light also used two separate light-sensing channels to make the distinction between the different colors. It's the separate channels that would allow the animals to have a form of color vision, Johnsen said.
During a sub dive, he used a small, digital camera to capture one of the first true-color images of the bioluminescence of the coral and plankton at the sites. In this "remarkable" image, the coral glows greenish, and the plankton, which is blurred because it's drifting by as it hits the coral, glows blue, Frank said.
That "one-in-a-million shot" from the sub "looks a little funky," Johnsen noted. But what it and a video show is crabs placidly sitting on a sea pen, and periodically picking something off and putting it in their mouths. That behavior, plus the data showing the crabs' sensitivity to blue and UV light, suggests that they have a basic color code for their food. The idea is "still very much in the hypothesis stage, but it's a good idea," Johnsen said.
To further test the hypothesis, the scientists need to collect more crabs and test the animals' sensitivity to even shorter wavelengths of light. That might be possible, but the team will have to use a different sub, since the Johnson-Sea-Link is no longer available.
Another challenge is to know whether the way the crabs are acting in the video is natural. "Our subs, nets and ROVs greatly disturb the animals, and we're likely mostly getting video footage of stark terror," Johnsen said. "So we're stuck with what I call forensic biology. We collect information about the animals and the environment and then try to piece together the most likely story of what happened."
Here, the story looks like the crabs are color-coding their food, he said.
4) Indian satellite GSAT-10 to be launched in 2 months: ISRO:
India’s 3400-kg communication satellite GSAT-10 is now ready to be shipped to the spaceport at Kourou in French Guiana for launch by European space consortium Arianespace in two months, according to Indian Space Research Organisation Chairman, K Radhakrishnan. “GSAT-10 with 30 transponders is ready to be shipped for launch. This launch is expected in middle of September,” Radhakrishnan, also Secretary in the Department of Space and Chairman of Space Commission, said on the sidelines of the 39th Scientific Assembly of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) being held here.
|Indian satellite GSAT-10 to be launched in 2 months: ISRO:|
Officials of Bangalore-headquartered space agency said it is a three-axis body stabilised geostationary satellite based on ISRO’s three-ton structure to provide communication services/augment existing services. It carries 12 normal C band, six extended C band, 12 Ku band transponders. The satellite will have a minimum operational life of 15 years. Radhakrishnan said ISRO hopes to conduct flight testing of its Geosynchronous Launch Vehicle (GSLV) with indigenous cryogenic engine and stage by January next year.
GSLV flight with indigenous cryogenic engine and stage conducted by ISRO in April 2010 and the one with Russian engine and stage in December that year had failed.
“We have done a lot of studies to find out the reason for the failure and taken corrective actions. We have conducted almost 40 tests on subsystems as well as on the engine. A couple of weeks ago, flight engine was tested for 200 seconds. That’s cleared for assembly as a flight stage,” he said.
Cryogenic engine and flight stage should be ready by November. ISRO needs to conduct two more ground tests before committing the flight, which is expected by the year-end or January next year, Radhakrishnan said.
|3D Picture of Sports News This Week|
Sport News of This week:
1) We brought out our best game: Leander Paes on US Open loss:
India's tennis star Leander Paes said that he and his Czech partner brought their 'A' game against the Bryan brothers in the US Open men's doubles final Friday night but it still wasn't enough.
|We brought out our best game: Leander Paes on US Open loss:|
Paes and Stepanek, seeded fifth, went down 3-6 4-6 to the second seeded American twins Mike and Bob in the title clash.
It was sweet revenge by the Bryan brothers for their loss to Paes-Stepanek in the finals of the Australian Open earlier this year. It was the Bryan brothers fourth US Open title having won it in 2005, 2008 and 2010.
Paes was equally complimentary of both his partners and his opponent.
"Even though we got beaten today by one of the greatest teams of all time, my team and Radek's team came out and brought everything they had to this tournament. I can guarantee you we will be giving it everything we have every single day for the rest of the year." he said.
2) India beat Cameroon to win Nehru Cup title:
ndia lifted the Nehru Cup for the third consecutive time beating Cameroon 5-4 in a penalty shootout at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in New Delhi on Sunday. Sunil Chhetri, Robin Singh, Denzil Franco, Mehtab Hossain and Clifford Miranda all scored from the spot while Thierry Makon struck the right-post to give India an unprecedented win.
|India beat Cameroon to win Nehru Cup title:|
In an end-to-end match which went into penalties, a valiant India held their more fancied opponents 2-2 in normal time.
Central defender Gourmangi Singh sent the 12,000 strong crowd into a frenzy as he beat the off-side trap to head in a Clifford Miranda free-kick in the 19th minute.
The Cameroon defence was absent as two Indian players were left completely free. There was more bad news for the Africans as goalkeeper Ngome Lawrence had to be substituted after he collided with Gourmangi.
It didn't take Cameroon much time to find the equaliser. Raju Gaikwad's clearance fell straight to Makon Thierry, who shot past Indian custodian Subrata Paul from outside the box in the 29th minute.
Thierry also played a key role in Cameroon's second. His precise flag-kick allowed Kingue Mpondo to head into an open net in the 54th minute.
With things looking dim for India, Sunil Chhetri gave the fans their voice again from a well-taken spot-kick in the 78th minute.
Mehtab Hossain's brilliant chipped through ball found the Indian captain in acres of space. Chhetri looked to have made a hash of things but recovered well only to be brought down by substitute keeper Nkessi Hosea.
3) India wins by 5 wickets to take series 2-0:
The BlackCaps just could not hold off the bats of India in the final cricket test in Bangalore.
|India wins by 5 wickets to take series 2-0:|
In-form batsmen Virat Kohli and Mahendra Singh Dhoni combined for a 96-run unbroken stand to help India defeat New Zealand by five wickets on the fourth day of the second test to complete a 2-0 series victory.
When the tourists took a quick three wickets after the weather enforced early tea break, things started to look brighter for the BlackCaps.
Set a target of 261, Kohli and Dhoni put the chase back on track after India had slipped from 155-2 to 166-5 after tea when they lost Sachin Tendulkar, Cheteshwar Pujara and Suresh Raina in quick succession.
But the BlackCaps couldn't stop India's momentum as the partnership of Dhoni and Kholi worked hard, Kholi batting up a test 50, bringing a huge response from the home crowd.
Kohli, who had scored 103 in the first innings, remained unbeaten on 51with nine fours while Dhoni followed his first innings 62 with 48 not out that comprised three fours and two sixes.
Needing five runs to win, India finished in style smacking a six into the stands, the Indians finishing on 262 for five taking out the series 2-nil.
India won the first test in Hyderabad by an innings and 115 runs.
|3D Picture of Political News This Week|
Political News This week:
1) Coal scandal: 60 coal blocks up for review today, licences at stake:
With just a week left of this Parliament session, the government is keen to end the paralysis caused by the "coal-gate" scandal. The Opposition has said that it will only allow discussion and debate in Parliament if the government agrees to cancel the allocation of 142 coal fields, and commissions a judicial inquiry to dissect how those licences were issued. Last month, a report by the national auditor said private firms reaped windfall benefits of upto 1.86 lakh crores because of a poor coal policy implemented by the government, a finding argued aggressively by the PM and his senior ministers.
|Coal scandal: 60 coal blocks up for review today, licences at stake:|
In what could help defuse the crisis, or at least pave the way for a compromise with the BJP, nearly 60 coal blocks could be de-allocated soon. An inter-ministerial group set up in July will meet today. It has found that 30 blocks given to the private sector and another 28 given to state-run companies deserve to lose their licenses for non-performance. The panel has found that these fields are unlikely to produce any coal by March 2013, and should therefore be handed over to the state-run Coal India Limited.
The inter-ministerial group is studying 90 coal blocks allocated since 1993 by different governments that were in power. The 60 coal blocks that could be de-allocated include seven that were assigned by the earlier NDA government.
The same review committee will also scrutinise another 30 coal blocks. A note earlier this month from the inter-ministerial panel asks for the de-allocation of two Jharkhand coal blocks given to Jindal Steel and Power Limited, owned by Congress MP Navin Jindal and Usha martin, owned by the Jhawar family.
Documents accessed by NDTV show that the Prime Minister's Office intervened last month to insist on urgent action against those companies who have failed to take any steps towards making their coal blocks operational. Letters show that after initially being reluctant about punishing firms, the Coal Ministry did a U-turn, possibly after Dr Manmohan Singh's office suggested non-performers should lose their licences.
The ministerial review committee, on July 25 recommended to the Coal Ministry that the licences of these firms be cancelled. Nearly a month later, on August 21, Coal Secretary SK Srivastava asked why a recommendation for action was being made at a time when guidelines for revoking licences have not yet been formalised. On August 23, the head of the ministerial committee, Zohra Chatterji, who is also the Additional Coal Secretary, responded that the existing terms for licences allow for cancellation if a company does not show satisfactory progress in developing mines. Ms Chatterji also pointedly said that it was upto the Coal Ministry to accept or ignore recommendations.
The Coal Secretary is unhappy that the inter-ministerial panel did not give the companies concerned an opportunity to defend themselves, sources said. Mr Srivastava raised a similar point with Ms Chatterji in similar correspondence. She responded by saying in a note that a detailed report of the companies' responses to their show cause notices has not been readied because the concerned department within the Coal Ministry is "overburdened with work related to a CBI inquiry".
However, officials from the concerned companies said this is not a valid reason for recommending de-allocation. They said they had replied to the show cause notice that was sent to them in April by the government but their answers had not been taken into account by the committee that had recommended the cancellation of licences.
"Cancellation of coal blocks allotted since 1993 (including NDA regime) where no development has taken place will defuse current crisis ....Out of 99 Blocks allocated to Private players since 1993, 60 coal blocks with 6.7 billion tonnes (ER) valued at nearly Rs.
2 lakh crores can be cancelled due to lack of progress as ascertained by Ministry of Coal in the meeting of January 2012," says an internal note prepared for today's meeting of the inter-ministerial group.
The same committee has also been asked to now study another 30 coal blocks for similar reasons.
2) New vector adding sting to dengue spread in Kolkata:
The rapid transmission of the dengue virus has led experts to believe that a new vector is stalking the city, especially in Salt lake, the fringe areas of the city and along the EM Bypass where hundreds have been infected, along with the primary carrier Aedes aegypti.
|New vector adding sting to dengue spread in Kolkata:|
Aedes albopictus or the Asian tiger mosquito is a secondary vector of the dengue virus and as lethal as the aedis egypti.
Entomologists say the pattern in which dengue is spreading from the south-eastern parts of the city indicate that the secondary vector has become active.
Rampant construction activities and chopping of trees along the Bypass are responsible for a spurt in the number of tiger mosquitoes this year, said entomologist Hiramnay Mukherjee. "Alt-hough fewer in number than the aedis egypti, albopictus has always been there, especially in Salt Lake and other fringe areas. It is very active in rural Bengal. But the number of albopictus had been curbed in recent years, thanks to measures taken," Mukherjee said. But, they made a comeback this season, thanks to the chopping of trees and construction work along the Bypass.
"The albopictus prefers old buildings and tree crevices. With buildings being pulled down for high-rises and trees being chopped to make way for the Garia-Dum Dum Metro corridor along Bypass, the secondary vector has turned active. It could be dangerous at a time when aedis egypti is already wreaking havoc," said Debashish Basu, preventive medicine specialist.
The worst affected areas in south Kolkata include Mukundapur, Kasba, Haltu Rajdanga, Garfa, Jadavpur, Bagha Jatin and parts of Tollygunge which are not far from the Bypass. These are the areas which are within a 5 km-radius, pointed out a tropical medicine expert.
"Traditionally, the albopictus has been active in these areas. Going by the huge number of patients this year, and the quick transmission of dengue, it's clear that the secondary virus has been active. The epidemic at Salt Lake can't possibly have been triggered by just aedis egypti," he said.
Entemologist Amiya Hati agreed. "Areas around Kolkata and Salt Lake have always had albopictus. It is a secondary vector here but has been an even bigger threat in South-east Asia where it has spread diseases like yellow fever, chikungunya and dengue quite regularly. We need urgent measures to check it," said Hati.
Albopictus mosquito rests in the vicinity of human dwellings, especially in trees and old-style houses and therefore has an advantage over the other two species - malaria mosquito anopheles and the aedes aegypti which can readily be eliminated by the application of DDT and other common household repellants. They tend to move into houses quicker than other vectors and are hence more difficult to eliminate, said Basu. "While egypti reproduce very rapidly, the albopictus are relatively slow breeders. But they have received a boost this year due to the collection of water around the Metro pillars on the Bypass and the numerous construction sites in the area. Intermittent rain and collection of water in the neighbourhoods has also played a part," he said. Piles of construction material and garbage dumps are also preferred by the albopictus.
Dengue has afflicted 269 more persons in the metropolis in the past 24 hours, official reports said on Saturday.
Apart from Kolkata, other districts hit by the vector-borne disease are North and South 24 Parganas, Howrah and Nadia districts, the reports said.
The website of the health department said that dengue has so far claimed three lives in the metropolis where 1,160 persons have been afflicted.
Health department sources said that the deaths were caused by dengue shock syndrome.
Unofficial reports, however, claimed that 20 persons have died.
Health officials said that precautionary measures have been taken by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation and municipaliies in the districts to prevent spread of the disease.
3) Assam journalists seek special law for protection:
Frequently under attack from various elements while discharging their duty in the troubled state, Assam journalists have called upon the government and all the political parties to take steps to enact a special law for protection of media persons on duty. It was decided at a meeting of various journalists unions at the Guwahati Press Club.
|Assam journalists seek special law for protection:|
The decision was taken in the wake of attacks and assault on scribes on duty in Assam on August 28, the day when the All Assam Minority Students' Union called for a statewide bandh in protest against violent clashes between Bodo tribals and Muslims in the Bodo Territorial Autonomous District areas.
Media persons from the state decided to impose three-months blackout of the AAMSU effective from August 28 unless the organisation tendered an unconditional apology.
Later the AAMSU relented and apologised by owning up moral responsibility for the attacks. It requested journalists to withdraw the boycott imposed on it. In response all the journalists unions of the state on Friday decided to reduce the boycott period imposed on the students union to just one month.
Over 20 journalists have been killed in Assam since 1991 by various elements but investigating agencies have failed to nab the culprits.
|3D Picture of Movie News This Week|
Movie Release This Week:
1) The Cold Light of Day :
|The Cold Light of Day :|
While on vacation in Spain a young Wall Street trader's family is kidnapped. With only hours to find them, he must uncover a government conspiracy and its connection to his father's secrets.
2) The Words:
In The Words, an aspiring writer claims another man’s long lost work as his own only to find there are steep consequences when ambition is valued above life’s most fundamental, impassioned three words.
3) A Night in the Woods:
|A Night in the Woods|
Brody, his girlfriend Kerry and their friend Leo go hiking in Dartmoor's Wistman's Woods, so named because of its legendary haunted past. That night jealousies, sexual tensions and strained relationships come to a head turning what should have been a peaceful camping adventure into a trip to terror. As collective paranoia reaches fever pitch it becomes clear that there is a much darker force at work in the ancient eerie surroundings. Who or what is after them? And can any one of them survive a night in the woods?
4) Girl Model:
Follows a complex supply chain between Siberia, Japan, and the U.S. within the modeling industry. The story is told through the eyes of the scouts, agencies and a 13 year-old model.
5) Raaz 3: The Third Dimension:
A film director must save his love from the black magic of a wicked woman who has become blind in love, lust and
Star Trek Complete its 46 th Years:
After long 46 Years time span “ STAR TREK “ is still going strong as most popular Science Fiction T.V Serial of the world. STAR TREK crews still continue their Voyage for Never –Ending Search for the Mystery of Universe. “STAR TREK” still Reignites our Childhood nostalgia towards world of Science-Fiction Adventure.