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Thursday, 3 May 2012

Satyajit Roy: World Famous Bengali Movie Director who uplift the Indian Movie at its highest level around the World.

Sri Satyajit Roy created by me in 3D Max software

Satyajit Ray ( 2 May 1921 – 23 April 1992)
Was an Indian Bengali filmmaker. He is regarded as one of the greatest auteurs of 20th century cinema. Ray was born in the city of Kolkata into a Bengali family prominent in the world of arts and literature. Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into independent filmmaking after meeting French filmmaker Jean Renoir and viewing the Italian neo realist film Bicycle Thieves of Vittorio De Sica during a visit to London.

Ray directed thirty-seven films, including feature films, documentaries and shorts. He was also a fiction writer, publisher, illustrator, graphic designer and film critic. Ray's first film, Pather Panchali (1955), won eleven international prizes, including Best Human Documentary at the Cannes film festival. This film, Aparajito (1956) and Apur Sansar (1959) form The Apu Trilogy. Ray did the scripting, casting, scoring, and editing, and designed his own credit titles and publicity material. Ray received many major awards in his career, including 32 Indian National Film Awards, a number of awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies, and an Academy Honorary Award in 1992. The Government of India honoured him with the Bharat Ratna in 1992.

Satyajit Ray At our Group COFFEE-HOUSE-ADDA

Early life and background:

Childhood picture of Satyajit Ray
 Satyajit Ray's ancestry can be traced back for at least ten generations.Ray's grandfather, Upendrakishore Ray was a writer, illustrator, philosopher, publisher, amateur astronomer and a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, a religious and social movement in nineteenth century Bengal. He also set up a printing press by the name of U. Ray and Sons, which formed a crucial backdrop to Satyajit's life. Sukumar Ray, Upendrakishore's son and father to Satyajit, was a pioneering Bengali writer of nonsense rhyme and children's literature, an illustrator and a critic. Ray was born to Sukumar and Suprabha Ray in Kolkata.

Sukumar Ray died when Satyajit was barely three, and the family survived on Suprabha Ray's meager income. Ray studied at Ballygunge Government High School, Calcutta, and completed his B.A. (Hons.) in economics at Presidency College of the University of Calcutta, though his interest was always in fine arts. In 1940, his mother insisted that he study at the Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan, founded by Rabindranath Tagore. Ray was reluctant due to his love of Kolkata, and the low opinion of the intellectual life at Santiniketan His mother's persuasion and his respect for Tagore finally convinced him to try. In Santiniketan, Ray came to appreciate Oriental art. He later admitted that he learned much from the famous painters Nandalal Bose and Benode Behari Mukherjee. Later he produced a documentary film, The Inner Eye, about Mukherjee. His visits to Ajanta, Ellora and Elephanta stimulated his admiration for Indian art.

Early Profession:
In 1943, Ray started work at D.J. Keymer, a British-run advertising agency, as a "junior visualiser," earning eighty rupees a month. Although he liked visual design (graphic design) and he was mostly treated well, there was tension between the British and Indian employees of the firm. The British were better paid, and Ray felt that "the clients were generally stupid." Later, Ray also worked for Signet Press, a new publishing house started by D. K. Gupta. Gupta asked Ray to create cover designs for books to be published by Signet Press and gave him complete artistic freedom. Ray designed covers for many books,

Book Cover Designed by Satyajit Ray

including Jibanananda Das's Banalata Sen, and Rupasi Bangla, Jim Corbett's Maneaters of Kumaon, and Jawaharlal Nehru's Discovery of India. He worked on a children's version of Pather Panchali, a classic Bengali novel by Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay, renamed as Aam Antir Bhepu (The mango-seed whistle). Designing the cover and illustrating the book, Ray was deeply influenced by the work. He used it as the subject of his first film, and featured his illustrations as shots in his groundbreaking film.

Along with Chidananda Dasgupta and others, Ray founded the Calcutta Film Society in 1947. They screened many foreign films, many of which Ray watched and seriously studied. He befriended the American GIs stationed in Kolkata during World War II, who kept him informed about the latest American films showing in the city. He came to know a RAF employee, Norman Clare, who shared Ray's passion for films, chess and western classical music.

In 1949, Ray married Bijoya Das, his first cousin and longtime sweetheart.The couple had a son, Sandip, who is now a film director. In the same year, French director Jean Renoir came to Kolkata to shoot his film The River. Ray helped him to find locations in the countryside. Ray told Renoir about his idea of filming Pather Panchali, which had long been on his mind, and Renoir encouraged him in the project. In 1950, D.J. Keymer sent Ray to London to work at its headquarters office. During his three months in London, Ray watched 99 films. Among these was the neorealist film Ladri di biciclette (Bicycle Thief) (1948) by Vittorio De Sica, which had a profound impact on him. Ray later said that he came out of the theater determined to become a filmmaker.

 As a Movie Director and Writer:
After Rabindranath Tagore One Bengali who achieved international fame and respect throughout the World Was Sri Satyajit Ray.He was the bengali Icon in the world of Cinema. Like Rabindranath Tagore Satyajit`s most of the work weather his directed Cinema or his writings were in bengali language.

Satyajit`s multifaceted talent covered all aspects of his Movie like screen play , story, direction , music direction , set and art direction, special effects etc.

Book Of Professor Shanku
Book On Feluda
Book written by Satyajit Ray on Feluda

Satyajit Ray`s literally works like Children Mystery story ( Famous Feluda series),children Science fiction story (Professor Shanku Series) and other Various short stories collected in a books named 1) One dozene Story 2) Another One dozene 3) Aro Baro etc. with his own unique and beautiful pencil drawing earn him international fame. Most of his stories were translated into various languages . His Feluda and Shanku series were transformed into comics (Which were also very popular among the children)
Satyajit Roy`s first movie was Pather Panchali (1955), (Which was the movie adaptation of the famous novel Pather Panchali written by Bivutibhusan Banerjee). This Movie achieved an international fame worldwide.

From this movie Sri Satyajit roy started his directional journey till his last movie Aguntuk upto 90s.

During Satyajit`s beautiful cinematic journey from “Pather Panchali” to “Aguntuk” he enlightened more or less every aspects and subjects of Cinema with his Midas Touch.

Different aspects of Satyajit`s Movie:
1)Special effects:
He was among the early Indian director who introduced the magic of Special effects in Indian Cinema.

Ghost Dance in movie Gupi Gayen and Bagha Bayen

a)Famous Ghost dance in his movie “ Gupi Gayen and Bagha Bayen” where king of the ghosts gave three boons to Gupi and Bagha after hearing song from them.
On those early time of Indian Cinema with very minimum technology resource , no other director can`t even think of making that kind of scene.

Poster of Pather Pachali

b)Till today no one can`t forget the beautiful scene from Pather Panchali  where little Apu and his elder sister Durga first see the Train in the middle of Rice field. This beautiful scene presented like a beautiful heavenly gorgeous black and white oil painting.

Scene from Paras Pathar

c) In the movie named “ Parash Pathar” where a simple middle class Bengali suddenly found a Parash Pathar in a street , which can turn any metal into Gold by touch.In this movie Satyajit Ray used some very small special effect shots when Parash Pathar turned every metal into Gold.

Poster of Gupi Bagha

d)No one can forget the magical scene where thousand pots with delicious sweets came down over hungry soldiers of Hulla King which stopped the war between Hulla and Shundi.

The act of evil magician of hulla was filled with many special effects scene.

Music and Dialouges of Satyajit Ray`s Movie:
In the beginning of his career Ray worked with some of greatest music maestros of Indian classical music; Pandit Ravi Shankar for the Apu Trilogy

Satyajit Ray With Ravi Shankar and Soumitra

and Parash Pathar (The Philosopher's Stone, 1958, Ustad Vilayat Khan for Jalsaghar (The Music Room, 1958) and Ali Akbar Khan for Devi (The Goddess, 1960).Since Teen Kanya (1961), he began composing the music for his films. "The reason why I do not work with professional composers any more is that I get too many musical ideas of my own, and composers, understandably enough, resent being guided too much", he said.

Satyajit Ray composing his movie music on Harmonium

He would start working on music in very early stages of a production - sometimes as early as in the script stage. He would keep notes of the music ideas as they evolved. After completing the final edit, he would usually shut himself in his study for several days to compose the music. He meticulously wrote the scores in either Indian or western notation depending on musicians.

"... the pleasure of finding out that the music sounds as you had imagined it would, more that compensates for the hard work that goes into it. The final pleasure, of course, is in finding out that it not only sounds right but is also right for the scene for which it was meant". he wrote.

To him the role of music was to make things simpler for the audience. "If I were the only audience, I wouldn't be using music! ... I have always felt that music is really an extraneous element, that one should be able to do without it, express oneself without it", he said.

He experimented with mixing western and Indian elements in his scores. He composed a background music that belonged a particular film rather than to any recognisable tradition. In Ghare-Baire (Home and the World, 1984), he adapted western music elements along with Indian ones to complement the two influences on the characters of flim.

Satyajit Ray Playing Piano

He created many iconic background music which uplift a particular scene into it optimum level. We can easily compared background music of James Bond movie with the Feluda`s mystery movie series. Every background music of feluda creates spine chilling mystery effect into the  auditory sense of the viewers.

Poster of Hirak Rajar Deshe

A unique aspect of the film Hirak Rajar Deshe is that most of the dialogues exchanged by the protagonists of the film are rhyming. The only person who did not speak in rhyme, was the teacher, symbolizing that though the thoughts of everybody else is bound, the teacher was a free-thinker. The film was followed by the third film of the series directed by Satyajit Ray's son, Sandip Ray.

Feluda Movie one
Feluda Movie Two

Different witty and intelligent  dialogue delivery In Feluda series like "Sonar Kella" and "Jai Baba Felunath" defined the Intellectual brilliance of Satyajit Ray.

Design and Art Direction:
Ray usually shot the outdoor scenes on locations and preferred studio for indoor shoots. Sets for this were designed to match the locations with no hint of studio quality or artificiality. His team worked with limited resources but with great Technical resourcefulness."Simulated natural settings are obsolete now, and exteriors are shot on real locations. If one shoots interiors in actual settings, one achieves the quality of verisimilitude. But there are limiting factors such as poor sound recording (involving the always unsatisfactory business of dubbing), restricted camera movement, interference from onlookers, etc. By and large, I prefer to shoot interiors in the studio where with a gifted collaboration of my designer and my cameraman I can almost always achieve what I want", he wrote in 1966.

"To the extent that a director knows what he wants, he can impose his ideas on the designer. The designer is independent only up to the point the director allows him", he said. Ray worked with Bansi Chandragupta, his art director, for about fifteen years. This relationship lasted until the designer's death in 1981. After designing sets for 19 of Ray's films, Bansi Chandragupta moved to Bombay in early seventies. He returned again to work on Shantranj Ke Khilari (The Chess Players, 1977).

Ray believed that a film set was built for the camera and for the camera-angles only. Anything that was not effective through the camera was a waste of good money and effort, however pleasing it might look to the naked eye.

Poster of Hirak Rajar Deshe

He visualized, Hirak Rajar Desh in a true way by his creative Set design and art direction. Thus no one can forget the scene of Brain Washing Room in this movie where evil scientist created a machine for brain-washing on diffrent class of people like workers, farmers and teachers to maintain complete obedience toward their Evil king Hirak Raja.

Collage of Different Movie Poster of Satyajit Ray
Collage of Different Movie Poster of Satyajit Ray

Every artworks like banners, hoarding and other publicity matters which were used to promote Satyajit`s movie was designed by himself.Specially mentioning the banner design of movie Devi, Jai baba Felunath, Apur Sansar ,Nayak.

Perfect choice of  Actors For his Movie:
According to me Sri Satyajit Ray was the only director of the world who mostly casted non professional actor and actresses for his most movie. He Have keen sense of human facial structure  and facial picture of different people. He can draw and memorise many persons face from his everyday life with his keen observation power. Later from his memory and drawings he can easily select those persons who were perfect for his movie`s characters.

Most of the actors and actresses in his first movie "Pather Panchali" was non professional ,but every characters in this movie were came out directly from the original Novel`s page as described by the author Bivutibhushan Banerjee.

Although Satyajit  Ray never acted in his movie but he knew the every aspects of acting . He Beautifully narrated every aspects of acting for every movie scene towards his non professional actors and actresses that those ordinary layman can acted beautifully on his instructions.


Saytajit Roy casted Soumitra Chatterjee and Santosh Dutta as Feluda , Young Apu and Lalmohon Ganguly in feluda movie that people recognised and called Soumitra as Feluda and as well as young Apu and Santosh Dutta as Jatayu in real life.

Chhabi Biswas in Jalsaghar

Satyajit Ray Casted Chhabi Biswas as perfect old Brahmin person who saw Devi rup in his daughter in law and old hindu Jamindar in Jalshaghar .

Sri Harindranath Chatterjee as Evil magician

Satyajit Ray also casted Sri Harindranath Chatterjee as Evil magician in Gupi Gayen and Bagha Bayen movie and Sidhu Jeytha in Feluda movie.

Tushi Chakrabarty in Paras Pathar

Satyajit Ray casted Tushi Chakrabarty beautifully as middle class poor bengali in his movie "Paras Pathar"  who accidentally find magic stone which turned any metal into Gold.

Uttam Kumar In Nayak

Satyajit Ray casted famous bengali hero all time Sri Uttam Kumar only two movies 1) Nayak (life of successful movie hero) 2) Chiriyakhana (Suspense thriller movie on the subject of the mystery novel on same name written by Saradindu Bannerjee on his famous Boymkesh Bakshi series). Satyajit Ray knew that only true movie hero like Uttam Kumar only play the central role of his movie "Nayak " successfully.

Later Movies of Satyajit Ray After Pather Panchali:
The rest of the next decade (1956-1965) saw Ray complete the Apu Trilogy. But this period also showcases his exceptional range as a filmmaker, and his increasing control on the medium of his choice. Ray composed films on the British Raj period (Devi, Jalsaghar), a documentary on Rabindranath Tagore (Rabindranath Tagore), two comic films (Parash Pathar, Mahapurush) and his first film from an original screenplay (Kanchenjungha). He also made a number of films (some based on stories of Tagore), that are among the most deeply felt portrayal of Indian women on screen, moving Pauline Kael to comment that she could not believe that Ray was a man, and not a woman.

Poster of Movie Aparajito

In 1957, Ray completed Aparajito, the second installment of the Apu films. This films follows the family in Varanasi, where the ailing Harihar dies. This prompts Sarbojoya to return to Bengal with Apu, back to a village life (though not the same village as in Pather Panchali). Apu starts going to school, turns out to be a rather good student, and finally the opportunity comes for him to go Calcutta. From this point the film becomes increasingly poignant, as Ray films an eternal struggle, between the young man and his ambitions and the mother who loves him, but finds him increasingly alienated from herself. The film is strikingly modern, which probably explains its lack of box office success, but many critics, notably Mrinal Sen and Ritwik Ghatak rank it even higher than the first film. Aparajito won the Golden Lion in Venice, removing any doubt that Ray's first film was a fluke.

Scene from Apur Sansar

Apur Sansar was made in 1959. Just like the two previous films, numerous critics find this to be the supreme achievement of the Trilogy (Robin Wood, Aparna Sen). One critic went as far as saying, "The World of Apu ... probably the most important single film made since the introduction of sound".  Ray introduced two of his favorite actors Soumitra Chatterjee and Sharmila Tagore in this film. The film finds Apu (Soumitra) living in a non-descript Calcutta house in near-poverty. He gets involved in an unusual marriage with Aparna, the scenes of the their life together forming "one of the cinema's classic affirmative depiction of married life".  But Aparna's death devastates Apu, causing him to reject his newborn son, but five years later, he finally comes back. Life has again truimphed over death.

Poster of Paras Pathar

Before the completion of the Trilogy, Ray completed two other films. The first is the comic Parash Pathar, made in 1958. In his performance of a lifetime, Tulsi Chakrabarti plays a poor Calcutta clerk who suddenly stumbles upon a stone than turns iron into gold. Ray follows his rise and inevitable fall with candid humor and humanism.

Poster of  Jalsaghar,

 Jalsaghar, widely regarded as one of the masterpieces of his ouvre. In this film, Ray studied a bygone era, that of the Zamindars. Bishwambhar Roy, the protagonist of the film, is a zamindar on brink of financial destruction, and has lost touch with everything after the death of his wife and son, except his passion for music. Ray followed this poignant story by Devi, a film in which studies the deep superstitions in the Hindu society with characteristic subtlety. Sharmila Tagore gives an outstanding performance as Doyamoyee, a young wife who is deified by her father-in-law. She commented later, "Devi was what a genius got out of me, not something I did myself".

Poster of Tinkanya (Story of Three lady from Rabindranath`s Short story named Post-Master, Shamapti and Manihar.

In 1961, Ray made a documentary Rabindranath Tagore on Rabindranath Tagore, on the occasion of the poet's birth centennial, a tribute to the person who probably influenced him most. This was followed by Teen Kanya, a collection of three small films made based on stories of Tagore. The first installment, Postmaster, "A small gem", is the most acclaimed of the three. Bosley Crowther, who previously wrote a scathing review of Pather Panchali, conceded in New York times that it "says almost all that can be managed about the loneliness of the human heart."

Poster of Kanchenjungha

In 1962, Ray directed Kanchenjungha, which was his first original screenplay and colour film, tells a story of an upper class Bengali family spending an afternoon in Darjeeling, a mountain resort, thus film time coincides with real time. Complex and musically composed, the film tells the story of the family members revolt against the dominating family-head Indranath Roy, and his final humbling.

Poster of Mahanagar

By now, Ray had found in Madhabi Mukherjee (introduced in film by Mrinal Sen), the perfect actress to interpret the main character in a film he long wanted to make, Mahanagar. Mahanagar was the among the most contemporary of Ray's work to date, telling a story of a house wife who decides to work to support her family, and the conflicts and emotions that leads to. Ray won Silver Bear in Berlin International Film Festival for the film.

Poster of Abhijan

He also finished Abhijan in 1962, a story of a taxi driver (Soumitra Chatterjee) and Gulabi (Waheeda Rehman).

Poster of Charulata

In 1964, Satyajit Ray made Charulata, regarded as many critics as his masterpiece.  Based on Nastanirh, a short story of Tagore, the film tells the tale of a lonely wife, Charu, in 19th century Bengal, and her growing feelings for her brother-in-law, Amal. This Mozartian film is often called "perfect" to the minutest detail, Ray himself famously said the film contained "least flaws" among his work, and his only work, that given a chance, he would make exactly the same way.  Madhabi Mukherjee, as the lead actress, gives a stunning performance in the film, accompanied by excellent ones by everyone else. The film also showcases the craft of both Subrata Mitra and Bansi Chandragupta at their best, the cinematography has influenced many films since. Almost all passages of the film have entered Bengali movie lore, but two scenes have received special critical attention: The first seven wordless minutes of the film, depicting Charu's ennui, and the "Garden-swing sequence", where Charu confronts her love for Amal.

Poster of Kapurush-O-Mahapurush

Charulata was followed by Kapurush-O-Mahapurush in 1965.

Add caption Uttam Kumar In Nayak

In 1966, Satyajit Ray cast Uttam Kumar, the iconic hero of Bengali film industry in a film of his for the first time. The film, Nayak, which examines the life of a successful cinema star. Arindam, the star, is on a train to Delhi to pick a national award. Though almost everyone else on the train either lionizes him or hates him, he finds a sypathetic listener in Aditi (Sharmila Tagore), an editor for a women's magazine, and reveals his inner angst to her. The film was shown in Berlin to somewhat lukewarm reception, which saddened Ray.

Poster of Chiriyakhana,

Nayak was followed by Chiriyakhana, a whodunit again starring Uttam Kumar. Ray, who directed the film at the request of his assistants who tried to film it but later lost nerve, essentially discounted the film from his ouvre.

Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne Poster

In 1969, Ray made what would be commercially the most successful of his films. Based on a children's story written by his grandfather, Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne is a musical fantasy. Goopy, the singer and Bagha, the drummer, meet each other in a forest after being outcast from the villages for terrible musical performances. Here they meet the King of Ghosts, pleased with them allows them three boons. Equipped with the power of magically getting food, shoes that carry them instantly to any place they wish, and most importantly marvelous singing and drumming skills, the duo set out to a fantastic journey in which they finally stop an impending war between two neighboring states, Shundi and Halla.

Hirak Rajar Deshe Poster

Ray made a sequel to this film in 1980, a somewhat overtly political Hirak Rajar Deshe (where the kingdom of the evil Diamond King or Hirok Raj is an allusion to India during Indira Gandhi's emergency period).

Aranyer Din Ratri Poster

 Aranyer Din Ratri was based on a story of the relatively new poet and writer, Sunil Gangopadhyay. It traces four Calcuttan young men going to the forests for a vacation, trying to leave their petty urban existence behind. All but one of them get engaged into revealing encounters with women, which becomes a deep study of the Indian middle class, but done with virtuouso humor and wit.

Often accused, at least in Bengal of ignoring the contemporary realities of the Indian urban experience, Ray finally made his emphatic statement on the topic in 1970's. He completed the so-called Calcutta trilogy: Pratidwandi,

Seemabaddha Poster
Jana Aranya Poster

Seemabaddha and Jana Aranya, three films which were conceived separately, but whose thematic connections form a loose trilogy. Though made in that order, the class and age of the protagonist
 imposes an alternative order on them (which critics often use):

Pratidwandi poster

Pratidwandi about an idealist young graduate; if dillusioned, still uncorrupted at the end of film, Jana Aranya about how a young man gives in to the culture of corruption to make a living, and Seemabaddha about an already successful man giving up morals for further gains. Of this, the first, Pratidwandi uses an elliptical narrative style previously unseen in Ray films, such as scenes in negative, dream sequences and abrupt flashbacks. The other two have a more simple narrative style. This difference reflects the superior imagination and sensitibility of the protagonist of Pratidwandi, Siddhartha, a character Ray deeply identified with. On the other hand, Jana Aranya is the bleakest, displaying a dark humor hithertho unseen in a Ray film.

Ashani Sanket Poster

In 1973, Ray returned to rural India after more than a decade with his Ashani Sanket. Here the filmmaker studies one of the great tragedies of recent Bengali history, the famine in 1943 that caused at least 3 million deaths. It was caused by a combination of ruthless speculation, apathy of the British rulers and disrupted communication due to the World War II. The film continues to confirm Ray's unique artistic perspective, he decides to look at the famine from the viewpoint of the village dwellers affected by it, caught unaware in the vortex of events they have no idea about.  The nature is lush, green photographed beautifully, to contrast against the impending danger. Ray cast Bobita, a Bangladeshi actress, as Ananga (the main female role), which launched her career as the leading actress in Bangladesh.

Sonar Kella Poster

Ray directed Sonar Kella in 1975, a comedy-thriller for children, first of Feluda Series, followed by Joi Baba Felunath in 1978.

Shatranj Ke Khiladi Poster

In 1977, Ray completed Shatranj Ke Khiladi, an Urdu movie about chess players of Lucknow. This was Ray's first feature film in a language other than Bengali, something he previously said he would not do. This is also his most expensive and star-studded film, featuring likes of Sanjeev Kumar, Saeed Jaffrey, Amjad Khan, Shabana Azmi, Victor Banerjee and Richard Attenborough. It was based on a story by Munshi Premchand, an important writer of Hindi literature. The film studies the decadence of the Lucknow gentry and the helpless surrender of its Nawab to the British in 1859. Ray infuses humanism and warmth in to these decadent characters, contrasting that of the acrid sarcasm of Premchand. This is characteristic of Ray, who was "bored by villains". In fact, at some point he thought about giving up the project as he was completely repulsed by the Nawab, but only finally went through it when he found his saving grace (after a long period of research), his love for music and arts.

In 1981, after being denied by the Indian government to make a film on child labour (on the ground that it was illegal in India), Ray reacted by making a Hindi film called Sadgati, dealing with arguably the equally depressing fact of untouchability. Based on a story of Premchand, this is his "cruelest film", and varied very little from the literary work, somewhat uncharateristic of Ray. The film presents, with excruciating detail, the life of Dukhi, an untouchable, and his death while working for the merciless Ghansiram, a Brahmin, who manages to throw his body in an animal dumping ground without ever touching him.

Ghare Baire Poster

During making Ghare Baire in early eighties, Ray suffered a heart attack that would severely restrict his creative output in the years to come. Nevertheless with the help of his son, Sandip Ray, who would operate the camera from then on, completed this film in 1984. He wanted to film this Tagore novel on the dangers of fervent nationalism for a long time, and even wrote a (weak, by his own admission) script for it in the 1940s. In spite of ineveitable rough patches due to his illness, the film did receive some critical acclaim, and it contained the first full-blown kiss in Ray's films.

Ray's last three films, made after his recovery, have a very distinctive style, largely due to the strictures put on him by doctors. Shot mostly indoors, they are much more verbose than his earlier films.

Ganashatru Poster

Ganashatru, the first of the trio, is based on An Enemy of the People of Henrik Ibsen. Ray transfers the story of the lone doctor to Bengal. Ganashatru is regarded by some as a weak film by Ray standards, and seen as an exercise to get back into filming after prolonged illness.

Shakha Proshakha,Poster

 In Shakha Proshakha, made from an original screenplay, Ray is back to form. In this film of "distressing beauty", three sons come to see their ailing father, who lives with a fourth son, who has mental problems. The father, who has lived a life of utmost honesty, comes to learn the corruption of his sons, and the final scene shows him finding solace only in the companionship of the fourth, uncorrupted but mentally ill son.

Agantuk Poster

Agantuk, Ray's last, is another original screenplay, based on a short story Atithi he had written earlier. This film tells a story of Anila (Mamata Shankar), who receives a letter from a man (Utpal Dutt), who claims to be her long lost uncle, who later on appears and stays with the family, stating that he is an anthropologist who has traveled all over the world.


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